Monday, December 16, 2019

Seven Wonders of the World Free Essays

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World While the ancient world left little written record, the evidence that we do have depicts it as far more advanced and culturally rich than many would expect. From the Phoenicians in Mesopotamia to the Mayans in Central America, technological advancements and complex theories drove the ancient civilizations ahead. Great thinkers from that period like Socrates left huge marks on the literary world. We will write a custom essay sample on Seven Wonders of the World or any similar topic only for you Order Now Great scientists like Copernicus developed theories that provided the foundations for more modern thought. Juxtaposing their technology with our own, we find their accomplishments truly amazing. Their buildings, remarkably built without cranes, bulldozers, or assembly lines, rival our greatest and create great wonder among our culture. Chief among their architectural feats, the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World remind us constantly of the ancient cultures’ splendors and advancements. These landmarks, the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria or the Walls of Babylon according to the list, left evidence of the magnificence of the ancient world. Understanding the history of the whole group as well as the history of the individual places creates a gratitude and reverence for our ancient ancestors. Herodotus created the first list of wonders in the fifth century BC but gained little notoriety for the feat and inspired few subsequent lists. His written record, a list mirroring that above with the exception of substituting the Pharos of Alexandria for the Lighthouse, was destroyed with the exception of references in the burning of the Library of Alexandria (History Reference Center). In following centuries, however, Herodotus’s ideas began to catch on. Conquering vast empires in the name of Macedonia, Alexander the Great led a strategic military campaign throughout the Balkans and much of the ancient world. Through these fourth century BC annexations, Alexander stimulated travel in the area, which in turn led to the Greeks gaining immense cultural knowledge about peoples like the Persians, Egyptians, and Babylonians. Alexander truly opened their world. With the influx of travel, the Greeks began and compile oral lists of ‘theamatas,’ a word translated to mean ‘the must-sees’. The lists, though they varied from person to person, lways contained a constant number of seven sites. Being neither a product nor factor of any number less than ten, seven is hard to separate into subdivisions and therefore provides an excellent number for indivisible things like the Seven Wonders, the Seven Deadly Sins, and the Seven Sages. After Herodotus, the next well-known list is that of Callimachus of Cyrene, a worker at the L ibrary of Alexandria. He wrote a work entitled ‘A Collection of Wonders in Lands throughout the World,’ but destroyed early on, the contents of the list remain unknown. De Septem Mundi Miraculous, or Of the Seven Wonders of the World, was written in 200 BC. Attributed to and supposedly written by Philo of Byzantium, many argue that it was actually written in the sixth century AD (Infoplease). Regardless, this work gives an excellent description of Seven Wonders, including the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pyramids of Giza, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Colossus at Rhodes, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis and Ephesus, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria. While most lists agree on at least six of the seven wonders, some ancient and modern lists substitute the walls of Babylon for the Lighthouse of Alexandria. The most renowned ancient list, coming around 80 years later, belongs to Antipater of Sidon and does exactly this. A citizen of Alexandria, Egypt, Antipater compiled his list in a poem during the second century BC, saying   I have gazed on the walls of impregnable Babylon, along which chariots may race, and on the Zeus by the banks of Alpheus. I have seen the Hanging Gardens and the Colossus of Helios, the great man-made mountains of the lofty pyramids, and the gigantic tomb of Maussollos. But when I saw the sacred house of Artemis that towers to the clouds, the others were placed in the shade, for the sun himself has never looked upon its equal outside of Olympus (History Reference Center)   These lists inspired others to not only explore but to tell of their explorations. After the works of Herodotus, Callimachus, Philo, and Antipater, people strove to make their own lists of wonders, almost always including the eight documented by Philo and Antipater. The oldest and only remaining of these eight wonders, the Pyramids of Giza took ancient Egypt by storm in 2560 BC. A remarkable architectural feat, they remained the tallest structures in the world until the nineteenth century. They originally stood at 481 feet tall but have shrunk to around 450 feet. Khufu’s pyramid, also known as the Great Pyramid, contains 2,300,000 blocks weighing around two and a half tons each. Every side of that pyramid is 756 feet long (Infoplease). Fourth-Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops, ordered the pyramids built as tombs for Pharaohs Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaure. Their splendor begins with their location. Cheops chose a plateau made of white limestone located southwest of Cairo. Surrounded by the Nile River, spacious green plains, astounding palm groves, and the magnificent skyline of Memphis, the area itself is a wonder. Originator of the concept of Seven Wonders, Herodotus became the first to describe the Pyramids when he visited Egypt around 450 BC. His account of the pyramids begins with an insult of Cheops, saying claiming â€Å"Cheops, who reigned over them, plunged the country into deep calamities† (History Reference Center). In Herodotus’s books, he asserts that Cheops employed over 100,000 slaves at a time, switching the men out every three months, but ancient historian Diodorus Siculus alleged that the pyramids actually required 360,000 slaves. Recent discoveries, however, have pinned the number of workers between 5,500 and 8,000 and declared that they worked willingly, not as slaves. Herodotus goes on to describe a magnificent causeway used to transport stones and marvelous underground rooms that took approximately ten years to build. With information gathered from his Egyptian guide, Herodotus chronicled the process used to build the pyramids, writing   This pyramid was constructed on the following plan. They began by building it in the shape of steps, having first made it in this form, they drew up the stones for the rest of the work by means of machines, consisting of short pieces of wood, when they had lifted them from the ground to the first tier of the steps; as soon as stone had reached so far, it was laid on another machine, placed on the first range; from thence it was hauled up to the second [and from the second to the third,] by means of another machine, for as many as the tiers of the steps there were, there was the same amount of machines. This passage shows the technological advancements employed by the Egyptians. The architecture behind the underground rooms proved extremely innovative; Cheops used a canal from the Nile to create an insulation system (Books). Summing up his Egyptian encounter, he gives a brief account of the lesser two pyramids, built as tombs for Khafra and Menkaure, and moves on to new things. Though many people doubt its existence, the alleged regality of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon stupefies many. Herodotus, previously mentioned as the first big traveler of the era, gave a full description of the city of Babylon, making no mention of the Hanging Gardens. This causes speculation among many historians today (History Reference Center). For those who do believe, however, the Hanging Gardens stood in Mesopotamia, near the present location of Baghdad, Iraq. Berossus, a Babylonian priest, wrote the first account of the Gardens in 3rd century BC, but since then, the works have been lost. Strabo and Philo gave the next ancient descriptions. Philo wrote, The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level, and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. The whole mass is supported on stone columns. Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels. These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches. This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators. (Books)   While most of Mesopotamia lived up to its appellation the Fertile Crescent, Babylon differed, having a desert-like climate. According to ancient writers like Berossus, Philo of Byzantium, and Diodorus Siculus, King Nebuchadnezzar II ordered the Gardens built for his wife around sixth century BC (Infoplease). Amyitis, a native of the luscious green Persia, greatly missed the beautiful landscape of her home, and as any affectionate husband would do, Nebuchadnezzar built the Gardens to appease her. The King filled the Gardens with pears, plums, grapes, and many other colorful plants. Providing great shade among the sandy landscape, the Gardens served as a retreat for the royal family. For the scholars that believe that the Hanging Gardens actually existed, another argument arises over whether or not the Gardens actually â€Å"hang. † In their Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Michael and Mary B. Woods argue that the description of the Gardens as â€Å"hanging† comes from a translation issue. They assert that the original Greek word can be translated into â€Å"hanging† or â€Å"overhanging† and claim that the original authors meant â€Å"overhanging†. Because its very existence remains disputed, no evidence of the date or method of destruction endures. Built in 560 BC, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus paid homage to the Greek goddess Artemis, goddess of the hunt, childbirth, and virginity (History Reference Center). King Croesus of Lydia ordered the Temple built on a marshland in present-day Turkey, and one hundred and twenty years later it opened for worship. Towering above other structures in the land, the Temple, made of marble, stood 300 long by 150 wide and massive columns (Infoplease). Croesus chose the location in hopes of protecting it from volatile earthquakes. That natural disaster, however, would not cause the destruction of the Temple; instead, it would fall victim to arson committed by a power-hungry Herostratus in 356 BC, on the birthday of Alexander the Great. Greek legend holds that Artemis, busy assisting with Alexander’s childbirth, found herself too preoccupied to protect her Temple. Alexander, sympathetic to this story, offered to pay for the restoration of the Temple, but the Ephesian leaders rejected the request claiming it was â€Å"inappropriate for a god to dedicate offerings to the gods† (Books). Despite Alexander’s dismissal, the Ephesians, led by sculptor Scopas of Paros, rebuilt the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, beginning almost immediately after the original’s destruction. The new Temple, the first made purely of marble, laid the foundation for extravagant building. Bigger than the original, it had 27 columns stretching 60 feet into the sky, spanning 425 feet long and 225 feet wide. Athens’s pride and joy, the Parthenon is believed to have only been a quarter of the size of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Pliny the Elder provided a base ancient description of the Temple, along with many other Grecian works, in his Natural History, written in the 1st century AD. Of the Temple, he wrote, â€Å"The most wonderful monument of Grecian magnificence, and one that merits our genuine admiration, is the Temple of Diana at Ephesus† (Books). Some, like Pliny, referred to the Temple as the Temple of Diana, Artemis’s Roman form. As Christianity spread through the ancient world, the Temple slowly became obsolete and eventually met its demise through raids from the Goths in 268 AD. Dedicated Ephesians made a final attempt to rebuild the Temple after its destruction, but Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great’s decision to outlaw Christianity, eradicating the Temple’s purpose. Site of the earliest Olympics, Olympia wished to honor its supreme god, also patron of their games, for their prosperity and success. To do this, they commissioned Phidias, chief sculptor behind the Parthenon, to build a statue paying homage to this god, Zeus. Using an innovative method designed by Phidias himself, he built a wooden skeleton in the intended shape of the statue and ordered workers to adorn it. Sheets of iron and gold were cut and fashioned to cover the wooden structure. Looming over the Temple of Zeus, the statue rose 40 feet into the air and was a massive 22 feet wide. Zeus’s Statue features him sitting on a magnificent throne, with his head brushing the ceiling. The ancient historian Strabo criticized the proportions of the statue, claiming that Phidias â€Å"depicted Zeus seated, but with the head almost touching the ceiling, so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple. (History Reference Center). Citation Page 1. Scarre, Chris. â€Å"The Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World. † (2004): 125-127. History Reference Center. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. 2. Infoplease. Infoplease, n. d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. http://www. infoplease. com/. 3. â€Å"Books. † Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. N. p. , n. d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. http://www. claytonpl. org/research/guides/guide. cfm? id=24. How to cite Seven Wonders of the World, Papers Seven Wonders of the World Free Essays Seven Wonders of the World Centuries ago one man dreamed, designed and constructed a breathtaking monument and then, it went on to become a wonder. Wonders of the world are so many. No list can comprehend everything. We will write a custom essay sample on Seven Wonders of the World or any similar topic only for you Order Now But why they are actually the wonders and what are the factors which make them to call a wonders? Every wonder has its own history and importance, and they have some interesting facts related with them. However, the original seven wonders of the world are the most worthy of our praise and appreciation as they were constructed in an era that was devoid of any building machinery and done mostly by hand. The true wonder we can say is artistic, mysterious, magnificent, stunning or in other words it is really a master piece, and due to these qualities it attracts everyone towards itself. The most remarkable or amazing creations by mankind are included in the list of Seven Wonders of the World. The number 7 is said to symbolize perfection and hence is used to list the wonders. There are number of different lists of the Seven Wonders of the World: the seven wonders of the ancient world, seven natural wonders of the world, the new Seven Wonders of the World and the modern wonders. A campaign to name the new Seven Wonders of the World, launched in 1999, has just reached to its climax. Originally, there were nearly 200 nominations which were shortlisted and finally, in the largest ever poll of its kind, 100 million people voted across the world for the final seven. Voting was done through the internet, as well as by phone and text. The popularity poll was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and organized by the new seven wonders foundation based in Zurich, Switzerland, with winners announced on July 7, 2007 in Lisbon. The New seven wonders foundation is regulated by the Swiss Federal Foundation Authority. 1. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: In the recent past, people across the world were asked to vote for their favorite seven wonders of the world. The ancient Greeks loved art and architecture. They were the first people to compile the seven wonders of the ancient world list. These wonders were built-in the marvels of the 4th century BC. The Greeks had conquered much of the world and traveled far and wide. As they were patrons of beauty, they took fancy to the landmarks and unique architecture of various lands. 1. 1 Great Pyramid of Giza: The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only surviving member of the seven wonders of the ancient world list, which was built in 2584 BC. It is located at Giza Necropolis, Egypt. This pyramid is about 800 feet long, 450 feet high and is build from 2 million blocks of stone. It is said to have been built as the tomb of the 4th dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu. (Baxamusa) 1. 2 Hanging Gardens of Babylon: Hanging Gardens of Babylon is built around 600BC. It was built by King Nebuchandnezzar. He built the garden for his wife Amytis of Media to enjoy a private, terrace garden without any disturbance. It was built in Al-Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq. These gardens were said to be about 400 feet wide, 400 feet long and were over 80 feet in height. The garden is supposed to have been destroyed by a massive earthquake. 1. 3 Temple of Artemesium: The temple of Artemesium, at Ephesus, was one of great temple built by Croesus, king of Lydia, about 550 BC and was rebuilt after being burned by a madman named Herostratus in 356 BC. The Artemesium was famous not only for its great size over 350 by 180 feet but also for the magnificent works of art that adorned it. The temple was destroyed by invading Goths in 262 AD and was never rebuilt. 1. 4 Statue of Zeus at Olympia: Statue of Zeus at Olympia was built in 435 BC. The Greeks completed this building. The statue of Zeus was built in the temple to honor the Greek Olympic Game. The statue was a gigantic structure that occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple. It was about 40 feet tall and was destroyed in a fire during the 5th and 6th century AD. Baxamusa) 1. 5 Mausoleum of Halicarnassus: Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was built in 351 BC. King Mausolus ruled a small kingdom in Asia Minor. His queen Artemisia was a beautiful woman who loved the king a lot. After the death of King Mausolus, she got the most beautiful mausoleum built in the memory of her loving husband. It was known as the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and people from far and wide came to visit it. By the year 1494 AD, it was destroyed by a flood. It was rebuilt but was damaged by an earthquake. 1. 6 Collosus of Rhodes: Collosus of Rhodes was built in 290 BC. Collosus of Rhodes was the colossal statue of the sun god Helios that stood in the ancient Greek city of Rhodes and was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. After about 56 years it was built, the statue was destroyed by an earthquake. It fell into the harbor and just the thumb of the statue was visible over the water surface. The king of Egypt offered to rebuild the statue, but the people of Rhodes refused. This is because they believed Helios himself threw the statue in water in a fit of rage. 1. 7 Lighthouse of Alexandria: Lighthouse of Alexandria was built in 280 BC. The Island of Pharos was a harbor in Alexandria, Egypt. This lighthouse was built in this harbor and helped ships enter the harbor safely. This lighthouse is said to have survived for 1500 long years and finally destroyed by an earthquake in the 1300’s. During its era, it was the tallest man-made structure at about 380 to 440 feet high. So, these were some interesting facts about the 7 wonders of the ancient world. Just imagine, what an impact they may have created in the minds of the people of that age. Except the Pyramid of Giza, all the other wonders have long gone. We can just imagine more about these magnificent structures based on the writings by people of ancient Greece. These seven ancient wonders have something special thing in it, which creates curiosity between us to watch and study these wonders. Although, only one ancient wonder is left today, but still they have attraction and by this force of attraction these wonders attract everyone towards itself. We can just imagine more about these magnificent structures based on the writings by people of ancient Greece. 2. New Seven Wonders of the World: The list of New Seven Wonders consists of man-made monuments from all over the world. These Seven Wonders of the World are spread across continents and were selected by people throughout the world using a voting method. The organizers thought that this will promote global harmony, along with increasing people’s knowledge about these historical monuments some of which are not in their own continent. In 2001 an initiative was started by the Swiss corporation New Seven Wonders Foundation to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments. Twenty-one finalists were announced January 1, 2006. Egyptians were not happy that the only surviving original wonder, the Great Pyramid of Giza, would have to compete with the likes of the Statue of Liberty, the Sydney Opera House, and other landmarks. In response, Giza was named an honorary Candidate. The results were announced on July 7, 2007, in Lisbon, Portugal. Figure [ 1 ]: New seven Wonders of the World, Source: New7Wonders of the World,en. wikipedia. org/wiki/New7Wonders_of_the_World. 2. 1 Chichen Itza: The name ‘Chichen Itza’ means ‘At the mouth of the well of Itza’. Here, Itza refers to a political clan of people, who were at their political and economical best in the northern peninsula (Saxena. Chaitra Suraj). Chichen Itza was the political focal point for a long time in the Mayan history. This winner of the seven wonders list is located in Yucatan, Mexico. The historical site consists of many stone buildings which are connected by a network of paved roads called Sacbeob. Most of these buildings have been restored and some are still under the process. These buildings have been grouped into sets of architectonic series (based on their architecture). And these sets are believed to be once separated by walls. The three famous sets out of them are, Great North Platform, the Osaario Group and the Central Group. These sets individually consist of various buildings, which are wonders in themselves. Chichen Itza consists of numerous temples, pyramids, and some interesting monuments like Steam Bath and the Great Ball Court. Each of the building had its own importance and was used for some specific purpose. One particular area of Chechen Itza is open to archeologists only, in a way it is still under observation and research. 2. 2 Christ the Redeemer: Christ the Redeemer is the statue of Jesus Christ, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is situated at a height of 700 meters on the Carcovado Mountain, in the Tijuca forest National Park. It weighs 635 tons and stands at a height of 39. 6 meters. It is built of reinforced concrete and soapstone and is the symbol of Christianity, as well as Rio de Janeiro. The construction of a historical monument on Corcovado was suggested first in 1850, then again in 1921. A lot many designs were considered for the religious monument, which included, the representation of the Christian cross and the tatue of Jesus with a globe in his hand. The Christ the Redeemer was finalized and the construction began in 1922 and continued till 1931. The cost of construction is estimated to be $250,000. The statue was opened to public on 12th of October, 1931 and in 2007 it became a part of the Seven Wonders of the World. In February 2008, the statue was struck by lightning, during a storm but was saved because of the o uter layer made of soapstone, which acted as an insulator. This particular storm is known to have caused a lot of damage in the city of Rio, but the statue stood unhurt. . 3 Colosseum: Colosseum, also known as the Roman Coliseum is situated in the city of Rome, Italy. Coming from such a strong background, it was a really strong contender for a position in Seven Wonders of the World list. It is an elliptical amphitheater and was originally known as Flavian Amphitheater. It is said to be one of the largest buildings of the Roman Empire. Construction of this amphitheater took around 10 years, starting from 70 AD and once ready the Colosseum was used for various public events and fights between gladiators. Gladiatorial fights were the major source of entertainment during those times and the public events consisted of mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, reenactments of famous battles, etc. The amphitheater was capable of seating a total of 50,000 spectators. It is estimated that some 500,000 people and over a million animals died in the events held at Colosseum. In the early medieval era, the building was stopped being used as a place of entertainment and then on, it is believed to have been used for various other purposes. The ancient building now stands partially ruined by earthquakes. . 4 Great Wall of China: The Great Wall of China was built between the 5th and 16th centuries BC. This wall was designed to protect the northern border from attacks. The Great Wall is over 4,000 miles long. The Great Wall of China also has the distinction of being one of the Wonders of the middle Ages as well. The Great Wall of China is a stone wall built from Shanhaiguan in the east to Lop Nur in the west of China and it stretches over a distance of 8,851. 8 kms. On land, the walls were made using earth or wood, but with the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the walls were made using bricks. Other materials like lime, tiles and stones were also widely used. With the use of bricks the construction is believed to have fastened and the brick walls were much stronger. The wall is now in ruins at most of the places and only a few parts remain in good condition. Parts of it have sustained years of erosion, human attacks, modern-day construction and even graffiti at a lot of places, in order to find a place in the 7 wonders of the world. (Saxena) 2. 5 Machu Picchu: Machu Picchu is a pre Columbian Inca site in Cuzco, Peru. It is located at a height of 8000 feet above the sea level on the crest of the mountain Machu Picchu. The name Machu Picchu means ‘Old Peak’ and is often referred to as ‘The Lost City of the Incas’. Its construction started in AD 1430 and the city was abandoned a hundred years later. It remained hidden from the outside world for hundreds of years, until it was discovered by Hiram Bingham, an American historian in the year 1911. Because of its location, Machu Picchu remained hidden from most of the world, including the Spanish conquerors. But now that it is in the seven wonders list, it is a famous tourist attraction and is visited by people from all across the world. Machu Picchu is believed to have been built at the peak of the Inca Empire and is the proof of their royalty and religious beliefs. Incas were basically sun worshipers. Inti in Peruvian means the Sun and hence, it can be easily understood that one of its primary buildings is â€Å"The Temple of the Sun†. The other main buildings are the Intihuatana and the Room of the Three Windows. Most of the buildings in Machu Picchu are in some or the other way related and dedicated to their God, ‘The Sun’. Machu Picchu is on the list of endangered ‘World Heritage Sites’. And that is why tourism in Machu Picchu is of great concern. Scientists believe that more the People, more will be the damage. 2. 6 Petra: Petra is a historical and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that is famous for its rock cut architecture and water conduit system. Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited tourist attraction. It lies on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. The downfall of Petra began under the Roman Empire. The basic reason being was the change of trade routes. Most of the Petra was destroyed by earthquakes, which damaged buildings and fractured the lifeline of Petra; the water management system. 2. 7 Taj Mahal: Taj Mahal famously known as the ‘Symbol of Love’ is a mausoleum, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is located in Agra, India. Taj Mahal’s construction began around 1632 and it took around 21 years to be completed. It was constructed according to the Mughal architecture, which is a combination of Persian, Indian and Islamic architectural styles. The mausoleum was built solely in marble, while other buildings in the complex were made of red stone. For the decoration purposes, 28 types of precious and semi precious stones were used and the raw material is believed to be ordered from as far as Afghanistan in the North and Sri Lanka in the South. It is said that nearly 20,000 workers were employed from all across the country for the construction work. These include skilled artisans, carvers, sculptors and stone cutters of excellent rapport. All in all, 37 people formed the creative unit of the project. Some of them were from foreign countries too. The approximate cost of construction is estimated to some 32 million rupees (Indian currency). It is considered as one of the master pieces of Mughal Empire and attracts tourism from all over the world. Statistics suggest that approximately 2 to 4 million people visit Taj Mahal annually. So, according to the above discussion we can say that every wonder has its own importance in the present world according to their historical background and their construction. People from all over the world visit these wonders to satiate their curiosity. Now a day’s architectures are in the constant struggle to make the new wonders which are better than the ancient and present wonders, but still the present wonders have great importance at the present time and architectures have to work very hard to defeat these wonders. Work Cited: 1. â€Å"Temple of Artemis. † Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. , 2012. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. lt;britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/36816/Temple-of-Artemisgt; 2. â€Å"Colossus of Rhodes. † Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. , 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. lt;britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/501620/Colossus-of-Rhodes. gt; 3. Mish, Frederick C. , Editor in Chief. â€Å"Petra. † Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 9th ed. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster Inc. , 1985 4. Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, The Message of the Sphinx, Pyramidology, 4 volume, 1957-1972, Web. 5. Nakate. Shashank. Seven Wonders of the World. Web 3/16/2010. Buzzle. com 6. Baxamusa. Batul Nafisa. 7 Wonders of the Ancient World List. Web. 2/25/2011. Buzzle. com 7. Marian K, Original Seven Wonders of the World. Web. 10/3/2011. Buzzle. com 8. Saxena. Chaitra Suraj, New 7 Wonders: What are the Seven Wonders of the World?. Web. 9/30/2011. Buzzle. com How to cite Seven Wonders of the World, Papers

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.